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A Military History of Modern Egypt: From the Ottoman by Andrew McGregor

By Andrew McGregor

Egypt has one of many oldest civilizations and proudest nationwide histories on the earth, yet so much army histories deal with it as an insignificant battleground for different nice imperial powers resembling the Ottoman Empire, the French, and the British. In a full of life and stirring narrative, this paintings tells the untold tale of the Egyptian event. It seems to be on the lives of Egyptian infantrymen battling at domestic and overseas, and indicates the jobs these infantrymen and their leaders have performed in Middle-Eastern and international background for 500 years—especially within the convulsions that experience reworked the Muslim international up to now centuries.Beginning with an outline of Egypt's old and medieval background, the e-book then explores Ottoman army rule, explaining how a tiny Turkish-speaking minority maintained absolute energy via maintaining army wisdom out of the clutch of local Egyptians. Readers will see how Napoleon's failed Egyptian crusade of 1798 brought the country to Europe yet, extra vital, introduced smooth Western impacts to Egypt. throughout the nineteenth century, new palms and strategies and the emerging strength of nationalism remodeled Egypt because the empire of the Ottoman Turks slowly decayed. Independence used to be thwarted by means of the British, who took over the rustic within the Eighties to safe hyperlinks to India. but the British cleared the path for independence, retraining and strengthening the Egyptian army to make it the most powerful and so much nationalist strength within the state. ultimately, McGregor's ultimate chapters examine Arab nationalism, and on the Egyptian military within the wars of the overdue twentieth century.

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As many as 500 Mamluks lost their life in this revolt, but Inal managed to flee to Gaza, never to be heard from again. Revolt of Ahmad Pasha: 1523–1524 The third Ottoman governor of Egypt was a Circassian, Ahmad Pasha. Known to history as Ahmad al-Kha’in (“the Traitor”), Ahmad appears to have had a hidden agenda from the beginning of his rule in August 1823. The Istanbul-based Ahmad was unhappy with his appointment, having believed himself to be next in line for the grand viziership. It was certainly an odd choice by the sultan to send a bitter Circassian to rule over the still dangerous and rebellious Circassian Mamluks in Egypt.

The shaykh and his followers responsible for the betrayal were invited to a Mamluk drinking party where they were plied with drinks before the Circassians fell on them with knives. Transfer of the Caliphate Kha’irbay was rewarded for his betrayal at Aleppo by being made the new governor of Egypt, though his son was carried off to Istanbul as a hostage. Jan Berdy was made governor of Syria, but rose in revolt after he heard of Salim’s death in 1520. Within a few months the rebel lay dead on a battlefield outside Damascus, his men routed by a superior Ottoman army.

That such a plan would also entail a general conflict with the Ottoman Empire, still the sovereign power in Egypt, seemed to cause little concern for the French. Bonaparte also had a personal motivation, a romantic urge to emulate Alexander the Great’s march of conquest into the Orient. On his way to Egypt, Bonaparte stopped for a week at Malta, where he deposed the ruling Knights of Malta and seized their immense treasury after a short fight. The knights were formed as a holy order during the Crusades, committed to the “liberation” of the Holy Land.

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