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A Monte Carlo Code for Relativistic Radiation Transport by Jeremy David Schnittman

By Jeremy David Schnittman

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3. For this reason, the observed spectra from these two disks are nearly identical. 4 keV) may be used to determine the inclination of the disk with respect to the observer. Disks at higher inclination will have an intense blue-shifted segment of the spectrum corresponding to the Doppler-boosted photons emitted from gas moving toward the observer. The higher intensity for the blue-shifted photons is caused by relativistic beaming, determined by the Lorentz invariance of Iν /ν 3 along a photon bundle: Iν (obs) = Iν (em) 3 νobs .

4. ALTERNATIVE QPO MODELS 33 jets. g. vertical and radial epicyclic frequencies) might occur at locations in the accretion disk where these frequencies have small integer ratios. The excitation of these resonances could very well produce the regions of overdensity and overbrightness that we treat as geodesic hot spots. In addition to these models for the high frequency QPOs, there are also a large number and variety of different models to describe the low frequency QPOs in black hole systems. Here too, global diskoseismic modes are used to explain the observed oscillations.

32b) reduce to (Shapiro & 44 CHAPTER 2. 33c). 36c), the right hand side R/r 4 can be thought of as an effective potential for radial motion in the equatorial plane. Stable circular orbits for massive particles exist when ∂2R ≤ 0. 37) exists. From Bardeen, Press, & Teukolsky (1972), this radius is given by rISCO /M = 3 + Z2 ∓ [(3 − Z1 )(3 + Z1 + 2Z2 )]1/2 , where a2 Z1 ≡ 1 + 1 − 2 M 1/3 and Z2 ≡ a M 1/3 a2 + Z12 M2 1/2 1+ 3 + 1− . 39b) Here the upper signs refer to prograde orbits (particles orbiting in the same direction as the black hole angular momentum) and the lower signs correspond to retrograde orbits.

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