By Habibullah Tegey - Barbara Robson
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Extra info for A Reference Grammar of Pashto
Kontenti in (56) ought to be glossed not as 'happy', but as 'be-happy'. 19 Before we come to a firm conclusion on this matter, however, several obser vations have to be made. First, not all items corresponding to English or Portuguese adjectives unambiguously behave like verbs. Actually, only those items do that refer to basic qualities such as 'big', 'small', 'happy', 'sad', colours, and so forth. Take, on the other hand, the following example: THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 35 (60) Kil tera (sedu) demokrátiku.
18 In (42), yara could not be substituted for yar, which suggests that only the latter can (but need not) be used as a 'deep' alternative form of sentence-initial kwas, probably because of its 'unverbal' outlook. ) (45) VP[-SUBJ,+FIN,+AUX] → H[y], S[AGR NP] (jumna) (46) VP[-SUBJ, +FIN] → H[n],W (47) VP → H[l] (durmi 'sleep') (48) VP → H, NP (kume 'eat') (49) VP → H, NP, NP (pista 'lend') Note that I do not use integers to mark the subcategorization features of aspectual auxiliaries and Ad-verbs, but rather the letters [x] and [y] since their complements are VPs headed by any verbs including themselves.
We already saw that an Ad-verb can be modified by an aspect verb. Sequences of aspect verbs will be dealt with later on. Here is the right place, however, to say something about sequences of Ad-verbs. Two principles seem to regulate them: (a) the cardinality of the sequence is limited to 2 (at least I never observed any longer sequence); (b) up to semantic plausibility, all combinations are permissible. I give a few examples below: THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 33 (50) Mininu torna yara kay. ' (51) Dipus di kil riunyon n kiri torna kalma.