A Short Grammar of Lithuanian by Terje Mathiassen

By Terje Mathiassen

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Ibn Sīnā, Abu ‘Ali Al-Husayn Ibn ‘Abd Allāh. Risālah: Asbāb ḥudūth al-ḥurūf. Ed. with English translation by Solomon Sara. 28–51, 2004. Sībawayh, ‘Amr Ibn ‘Uthmān. Kitāb Sībawayh. 5 vols. Ed. by Abdul Salām Hārūn. Beirut: ‘Ālam al-Kutub. 1983. B. Modern sources Abu Bakr, Y. 1974. The Text of the Qur’an with Reference to the Phonetic Aspects of Tajwīd. D. dissertation, University of Manchester. Al-Ani, Salman. 1970. Arabic Phonology. The Hague: Mouton. Al-Azraqi, Munira. 2010. “The Ancient D . ād in Southwest Saudi Arabia”.

Their interpretation of their data prompts them to advance new suggestions, couched in the framework of Esling’s ‘laryngeal articulator’ model (Esling 1996, 1999, 2005), about the production of emphatic consonants in Iraqi Arabic. Combining acoustic with laryngoscopic evidence, they conclude that the pharynx is simultaneously elongated by larynx lowering (the opposite to what Al-Tamimi & Heselwood observe for Jordanian Arabic) and narrowed by an upward and rearward movement of the tongue dorsum, though they concede that this provisional conclusion needs corroboration from other instrumental techniques such as ultrasound tongue imaging.

Esling, John H. 2005. “There Are No Back Vowels: The laryngeal articulator model”. 13–44. Fleisch, Henri. 1994. “Arabic Linguistics”. History of Linguistics: The eastern traditions of linguistics ed. by Giulio Lepschy, 164–184. London: Longman. Garbell, Irene. 1958. “Remarks on the Historical Phonology of an East Mediterranean Arabic Dialect”. 303–337. Gairdner, W. T. 1935. “The Arab Phoneticians on the Consonants and Vowels”. 242–57. Repr. in Readings in Arabic Linguistics ed. by Salman H. Al-Ani, 187–202.

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