Advanced nutrition by Carolyn D Berdanier

By Carolyn D Berdanier

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Muscle glycogen is used to synthesize ATP for muscle contraction, whereas hepatic glycogen is the glucose reserve for the entire body, particularly the central nervous system. The amount of glycogen in the muscle is dependent on the physical activity of the individual. After bouts of strenuous exercise, the glycogen store will be depleted, only to be rebuilt during the resting period following exercise. Glycogen synthesis begins with glucose-1-phosphate formation from glucose-6-phosphate through the action of phosphoglucomutase.

9 The alanine cycle. Both the Cori cycle and the alanine cycle serve to ensure a supply of glucose to cells that require it. Once in the hepatocyte, this alanine is deaminated (the amino group used for urea synthesis) and the resultant pyruvate used to resynthesize glucose via gluconeogenesis. These cycles are important in glucose homeostasis because they provide the means for supplying glucose to tissues that need it. 10, has rate-controlling properties with respect to gluconeogenesis. The malate–aspartate shuttle works to transport reducing equivalents into the mitochondria.

Although most fatty acids synthesized in mammalian cells have an even number of carbons, this first committed step yields a 3-carbon product. This results in an asymmetric molecule that becomes vulnerable to attack (addition) at the center of the molecule with the subsequent loss of the terminal carbon. The vulnerability is conferred by the fact that the carboxyl group at one end and the CoA group at the other end are both powerful attractants of electrons from the middle carbon group. This leaves the carbon in a very reactive state, and a second acetyl group carried by a carrier protein with the help of phosphopantetheine, which has a sulfur group connection, can be joined to it through the action of the enzyme malonyl transferase.

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