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Advances in Insect Chemical Ecology by Ring T. Cardé, Jocelyn G. Millar

By Ring T. Cardé, Jocelyn G. Millar

Chemical signs mediate all features of bugs' lives and their ecological interactions. The self-discipline of chemical ecology seeks to solve those interactions via picking and defining the chemical substances concerned, and documenting how notion of those chemical mediators modifies behaviour and eventually reproductive luck. Chapters during this 2004 quantity think about how vegetation use chemical compounds to protect themselves from insect herbivores; the complexity of floral odors that mediate insect pollination; tritrophic interactions of crops, herbivores, and parasitoids and the chemical cues that parasitoids use to discover their herbivore hosts; the semiochemically mediated behaviours of mites; pheromone communique in spiders and cockroaches; the ecological dependency of tiger moths at the chemistry in their host-plants; and the selective forces that form the pheromone communique channel of moths. the amount provides descriptions of the chemical substances concerned, the results of semiochemically mediated interactions on reproductive luck, and the evolutionary pathways that experience formed the chemical ecology of arthropods.

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Extra resources for Advances in Insect Chemical Ecology

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Moreover, many parasitoids and predators, whether they are generalists or not, can find their hosts or prey on a variety of plant species and each of these has its own characteristic basic odor blend. Therefore, natural enemies that use plant odors to locate their prey will need to determine which odors are most reliably associated with a certain prey at a certain time. The variation in odor emissions that can be found among plant species is illustrated in Fig. 4. The chromatograms depict the volatile blends released by four crop plant species (maize, cotton, cowpea, and alfalfa) at different times after an attack by the common lepidopteran pest S.

An important dichotomy might occur between the nutrition of immature and mature stages. Ants tend to feed protein-rich food preferentially to their larvae, whereas the adults survive mostly on a diet of plant-derived carbohydrates (Haskins and Haskins, 1950; Vinson, 1968). Further differentiation takes place among the adult castes, as it is believed that certain activities such as foraging, killing, and dismembering of prey, as well as the transporting of food items or building material, require most energy (Beattie, 1985).

In some cases, predators may also feed on plant productive tissue, in which case they have to be classified as potential herbivores. The level in which predators or parasitoids depend on primary consumption varies. Nutritional requirements of natural enemies Ants display a broad variation in lifestyles, which is reflected in an equally broad dietary diversity, ranging from species that are primarily predators to species that rely almost entirely on honeydew and extrafloral nectar. Although it has long been held that the majority of ant species are predominantly carnivorous (Sudd and Franks, 1987; H¨olldobler and Wilson, 1990), Tobin (1994) argued that the dominant species are largely primary consumers, for which the bulk of their diet consists of plant-derived carbohydrates.

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