Annual Review of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2008 by Singh, Rajendra

By Singh, Rajendra

The main primary type of human cognition and motion, and all human languages have built many units to specific it. those comprise verbal different types, equivalent to demanding and point, but additionally adverbials, debris, and rules of discourse employer. This publication is meant as an educational for the learn of ways time is expressed in normal languages. Its chapters take the reader via a couple of foundational concerns, corresponding to a few of the notions of time and some of the capability to precise it; different chapters are dedicated to extra particular questions, equivalent to the purchase of time, its modelling in formal semantics and in computational linguistics, or how its expression might be empirically investigated.

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The polemical charge embedded in the echo construction is not related to a paradigmatic treatment within a wider set of neighbouring notions of which they would represent one of the possible examples. In this way, when an elderly counterrevolutionary or non concerned youngsters utter the name of Lenine with the alteration lenin-venin (lenin-henin in Pahari), the name Russia (ruˆs) distorted into ruˆs-huˆs, addressing a young fiery communist24, they only wish to communicate their hatred and dislike towards what is associated with both names.

In the above two examples, the echo construction redefines the notion F such that F is only one element of a paradigm in a wider notional domain, and the other elements, which remain implicit (hence the fuzzy character, Reduplication and ‘echo words’ in Hindi/Urdu 41 vagueness, often referred to), may further in the exchange, be either selected instead of F or added to F in a cumulative way. As for the semantic area of F, it may be vague (17c) or precise (17a–b). (17) c. khaˆnaˆ-vaˆnaˆ vahıˆN ho saktaˆ hai eat-echo there-only be can pres-3s ‘we can have food and everything there (we’ll find everything there for meal)’ Here the co-existence of Interior and boundary (I-E) is cumulative, its signals that we are not restricted to I but associate I-E to I, with an emphasis on I in I-E (the boundary is represented as related to the Interior of the notion).

She does not ironize either on the general designation of the learned Brahmins by the word ‘‘pandit’’, or on its adequateness as an appellative for other people – she keeps calling the old Master ‘‘pandit’’. But she refuses, in agreement with the young master himself, to use a term he does not like, inadequate for this only reason. Moreover, by doing so, she opposes her husband, a servant but a traditionalist too. The echo construction makes fun of the husband’s concept of appellatives. The conflict between the two interpretations, that of B (S1) the husband, and that of A (So) the wife, is about the interpretation of both speech-act participants regarding the validity of the designation ‘‘pandit’’ for the young master: you think it is a good one, I think it is absurd.

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