By Editors of Old Cars Weekly
Old automobiles Weekly has back opened the storage doorways of a few of the simplest car recovery retailers round to carry you our Auto recovery consultant Vol. II. From brakes and differentials to carpet, rust fix, or even pinstriping, learn the way the pros do the job.
Do-it-yourselfers of all degrees will learn:
• Fender and panel alignment
• Patch panels
• Bleeding brakes
• Sheet steel fix and bodywork
• Upholstery basics
• assistance for trailering an previous car
• Crate engine advice
• and masses extra
Read or Download Old Cars Auto Restoration Guide, Volume 2 PDF
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Extra resources for Old Cars Auto Restoration Guide, Volume 2
3) Sprung mass is that fraction of total vehicle mass supported by the suspension, including portions of the suspension members that move. Unsprung mass is the remaining fraction of vehicle mass carried directly by the tyres, excluding the sprung mass portion, and considered to move with the tyres. 4). 4) Generally, the front to rear static mass split is 60 : 40 or less. Dynamic effects of braking cause a dynamic mass shift (pitch motion resulting in dive) so that front axle braking may be 70% or more of the total braking force.
Ignition timing is engine speed and load dependent, so that spark application will be at some point ahead of TDC. The ignition point (IP) lights off the fuel–air mixture, which then burns throughout the expansion stroke when both valves are closed. At some point before BDC, the exhaust valve opens (EO), venting the combustion gases to atmosphere. As the piston continues to move past BDC toward TDC the remaining spent gases are forced out of the cylinder until the exhaust valve closes (EC). Depending on engine strategy, particularly exhaust gas recirculation, EGR, some amount of internal EGR is provided by the intake opening and exhaust valve closing event timing.
6 above. 16 Propulsion systems for hybrid vehicles Regen. 6 is evident. Real world customer usage (ATDS cycle), US06 and EPA-city show the highest incidence of braking events having durations of 5 to 10 s. Higher speed driving cycles show braking events distributed out beyond 30 s. 3 s and to offload the ICE during transient operation such as quick acceleration and deceleration. During normal driving, the motor-generator is designed to operate as a high efficiency alternator. Alternator efficiency exceeding 80% is necessary if the additional cost and complexity of hybridization is to meet the PNGV targets of 2× to 3× fuel economy noted earlier .